Valentine Chirol, Map of the Middle East, on the cover of Valentine Chirol ,The Middle Eastern Question; or, Some Political Problems of Indian Defence (London: J. Murray, 1903), book cover. Photograph courtesy of the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire des Langues Orientales (BIULO GEN.III.1619).

Valentine Chirol, Map of the Middle East, on the cover of Valentine Chirol ,The Middle Eastern Question; or, Some Political Problems of Indian Defence (London: J. Murray, 1903), book cover. Photograph courtesy of the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire des Langues Orientales (BIULO GEN.III.1619).